Typical filtration equipment used in private swimming pools
Some pool pumps have two motor speeds to reduce power consumption at times when full power is not needed. Other pump manufacturers (typically Italian or other European) have redesigned their units to use a smaller electric motor with heavier windings, therefore consuming less energy, to power a larger pump impeller. Variable-speed pumps allow power consumption to be reduced further, and are popular in the United States, where they are often run 24 hours a day. Most pool pumps available today incorporate a small filter basket termed a “hair and lint strainer” or “lint pot” as the last effort to avoid leaf or hair contamination reaching the close-tolerance impeller section of the pump.
A pressure-fed filter is typically placed in line immediately after the water pump. The filter typically contains a media such as graded sand (called ’14/24 Filter Media’ in the UK system of grading the size of sand by sifting through a fine brass-wire mesh of 14 to the inch to 24 to the inch). The sand in the filter will typically last five to seven years before all the “rough edges” are worn off and the more tightly packed sand no longer works as intended.
Some filters use diatomaceous earth to help filter out contaminants. Commonly referred to as ‘D.E.’ filters, they exhibit superior filtration capabilities. Often a D.E. filter will trap water-borne contaminants as small as 1 micrometer in size. D.E. filters are banned in some states, as they must be emptied out periodically and the contaminated media flushed down the sewer, causing a problem in some districts’ sewage systems.
Other filter media that have been introduced to the residential swimming pool market since 1970 include sand particles and paper type cartridge filters of 50 to 150 square feet (14 m2) filter area arranged in a tightly packed 12″ diameter x 24″ long (300 mm x 600 mm) accordion-like circular cartridge. These units can be ‘daisy-chained’ together to collectively filter almost any size home pool.
Robotic Pool Cleaners and Handheld/Extended-Reach Pool and Spa Vacuums
Automated pool cleaners more commonly known as “Automatic pool cleaners” and in particular electric, robotic pool cleaners provide an extra measure of filtration, and in fact like the handheld vacuums can micro filter a pool, which a sand filter without flocculation or coagula Lents is unable to accomplish.